Directsex

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This review discusses the strategies for identifying X and Y genes or mechanisms that cause sexual bias, using mouse models that differ in their sex chromosome complement, including differences in the parental source of the X chromosome.Primary among the sexually unbalanced effects of X and Y genes are those that cause sexual differentiation of the gonads.

Logical approaches to the search for these genes are reviewed here.

It has been much more difficult to discover the direct sex-biased effects of the X and Y genes on non-gonadal tissues, because altering the sex chromosome complement usually causes changes in the type or function of the gonads, and therefore introduces confounding differences in the level of gonadal secretions.

Here, we review mouse models (see also []) that enable the separation of sex chromosome complement effects from the hormonal confounds, thus facilitating the identification of direct sex chromosome effects (direct SCEs) that contribute to sex differences.

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